Video 2

Movie S2. High-magnification imaging of beating cilia on the surface of a P. damicornis explant. The white contour is the edge of the coral tissue. Above it, cilia are clearly visible and beat mostly toward the right. The cilia beat rate was ∼16 Hz. The video was captured by phase-contrast microscopy using a 100× objective at 1,000 frames per second and is played back 33 times slower than real time.

Vortical ciliary flows actively enhance mass transport in reef corals

Orr H. Shapiro, Vicente I. Fernandez, Melissa Garren, Jeffrey S. Guasto, François P. Debaillon-Vesque, Esti Kramarsky-Winter, Assaf Vardi, and Roman Stocker

PNAS. 2014. 111:13391-13396 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1323094111