Video 3

3D movie of live-imaging analysis at 21 min after the disappearance of the pronuclear membrane of tripronuclear (3PN) zygotes derived from the conventional in vitro fertilization (c-IVF) and showing the positional relationship of the chromosomes and microtubules. This video is available from the online version of the article at

First mitotic spindle formation is led by sperm centrosome-dependent MTOCs in humans

Yoshiteru Kai, Hiroomi Kawano, and Naoki Yamashita

2021. 161:V19-V22 DOI: 10.1530/REP-21-0061