Movie S3.

Passive transfer. In a Passive transfer, the recipient requests the tool, and the possessor allows the recipient to take it without facilitation or hesitation. In the first example from Goualougo, an infant female whimpers and then reaches toward her mother’s fishing probe, at which point she is permitted to take possession of the tool. In the second example, an infant male at Gombe reaches toward his mother’s fishing probe. He extends his finger towards the tool as she extracts the probe from the mound, at which point he is allowed to take possession of the tool.

Teaching varies with task complexity in wild chimpanzees

Stephanie Musgrave, Elizabeth Lonsdorf, David Morgan, Madison Prestipino, Laura Bernstein-Kurtycz, Roger Mundry, and Crickette Sanz

PNAS. 2019. 117:969-976 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907476116